In preventive health behaviors, early studies showed that perceived susceptibility, benefits, and barriers were consistently associated with the desired health behavior; perceived severity was less often associated with the desired health behavior. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. Perceived susceptibility refers to subjective assessment of risk of developing a health problem. Another use of the HBM was in 2016 in a study that was interested in examining the factors associated with physical activity among people with mental illness (PMI) in Hong Kong (Mo et al., 2016). The Health Belief Model assumes that people are largely rational in their thoughts and actions, and will take the best health-supporting action if they: 1. Perceived severity - This refers to a person's feelings on the seriousness of contracting an illness or disease (or leaving the illness or disease untreated). [2] For instance, habitual health-related behaviors (e.g., smoking, seatbelt buckling) may become relatively independent of conscious health-related decision making processes. Perceived Susceptibility: This refers to how vulnerable a person feels about getting afflicted by a … Introduction Childhood obesity has become a widespread epidemic, especially in the United States. [7], The following constructs of the HBM are proposed to vary between individuals and predict engagement in health-related behaviors.[2]. There are six constructs of the HBM. It was initially developed within the 1950s, and up to date within the 1980s. STAGES OF CHANGES, BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION PRACTICE AND RELATED HEALTH BELIEFS IN WOMEN--A THEORY-BASED STUDY [2][3][4] Cues to action can be internal or external. [6][12] Self-efficacy refers to an individual's perception of his or her competence to successfully perform a behavior. argued that self-efficacy could be added to the other HBM constructs without elaboration of the model's theoretical structure. Limitations of the model include the following: The HBM is more descriptive than explanatory, and does not suggest a strategy for changing health-related actions. The intensity of cues needed to prompt action varies between individuals by perceived susceptibility, seriousness, benefits, and barriers. These beliefs include: 1. Early studies by Hochbaum concerned why people seek diagnostic x-rays for tuberculosis. Elvis E. Tarkang 1, *, Francis B. Zotor 2. Perceived benefits - This refers to a person's perception of the effectiveness of various actions available to reduce the threat of illness or disease (or to cure illness or disease). Similarly, with perceived severity the respondents did not view their habits as having a severe consequence therefore they had a low desire to quit. [3] Structural variables include knowledge about a given disease and prior contact with the disease, among other factors. Table 1 provides more background information while Table 2 shows the correlation between the participants perceived variables and the intention to stop smoking. [2] If an individual believes that a particular action will reduce susceptibility to a health problem or decrease its seriousness, then he or she is likely to engage in that behavior regardless of objective facts regarding the effectiveness of the action. Gravity. [3][12] Eventually, the HBM was applied to more substantial, long-term behavior change such as diet modification, exercise, and smoking. [2][6] Perceived barriers to taking action include the perceived inconvenience, expense, danger (e.g., side effects of a medical procedure) and discomfort (e.g., pain, emotional upset) involved in engaging in the behavior. The Health Belief Model can be used to design short- and long-term interventions. [12] The model was originally developed in order to explain engagement in one-time health-related behaviors such as being screened for cancer or receiving an immunization. The survey found that among the HBM variables, perceived barriers were significant in predicting physical activity. Its’ underlying concept is that health behavior is explained by perception of the disease and the strategies available to lower its occurrence. It assumes that everyone has access to equal amounts of information on the illness or disease. Boston University School of Public Health. Write. 1. Perceived susceptibility - This refers to a person's subjective perception of the risk of acquiring an illness or disease. [2][3], One of the first theories of health behavior,[5] the HBM was developed in 1950s by social psychologists Irwin M. Rosenstock, Godfrey M. Hochbaum, S. Stephen Kegeles, and Howard Leventhal at the U.S. Public Health Service. The Health Belief Model. The Health Belief Model is commonly used for health promotion and health education. Cue to action - This is the stimulus needed to trigger the decision-making process to accept a recommended health action. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one relevant theory that claims to predict or control health behaviour.HBM was developed by researchers at US Public Health Service in 1974. [3] Individuals with low perceived susceptibility may deny that they are at risk for contracting a particular illness. Scholars extend the HBM by adding four more variables (self-identity, perceived importance, consideration of future consequences and concern for appearance) as possible determinants of healthy behavior. The project uses a community health worker (CHW) promotora model to provide services. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a instrument that scientists use to try to predict well being behaviors. [6] Evidence suggests that fear may be a key factor in predicting health-related behavior.[6]. Flashcards. Two additional predictors of the behavior were added later: 1. a person’s confidence in his or her ability to take the action, given the barriers to the action 2. and reminders to act. All Rights Reserved. The HBM suggests that people's beliefs about health problems, perceived benefits of action and barriers to action, and self-effic… The last two were added as research about the HBM evolved. STUDY. 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