Albert Gallatin (1761 - 1849) was an American statesman and scholar who served as the United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1801 to 1814 under presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.Expert in finance, Gallatin designed and implemented Jeffersonian Republican fiscal policies by lowering taxes, reducing the national debt, and financing both the Louisiana Purchase and the War of … Whiskey became the local currency. However, Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton had other plans. Excise: Tar & Feather, 1794. Farmington, PA The Whiskey Rebellion Education & Visitor Center created through a handful of very talented board members (Denise Cummins, Michael Robinson and Kathy Teagarden), the Executive Director, Tracie Liberatore, and consultants, William Kline and Clay Kilgore working together with Springboard Design, Blue Sky Sign Company and Carpenter Connection. Gallatin counseled his neighbors to pay the tax or give up distilling. Defense Attorney: Mr. Gallatin, will you state to the jury your title and role in the Whiskey Rebellion. MONONGAHELA, Pa. (AP) — A Pennsylvania historical sign in a Monongahela parking lot marks the location where U.S. statesman Albert Gallatin delivered an eloquent speech that brought an end to a revolt over a federal whiskey tax in 1794. Home of Whiskey Rebellion leader Albert Gallatin. He was selected to attend a regional meeting at Parkinson’s Ferry on August 14-15. Gallatin had proven to be an effective opponent of Alexander Hamilton’s financial policies, and the election controversy added to his fame. Washington opted to retain the military option until proof of submission was apparent. In the summer of 1794, federal marshal David Lenox began the process of serving writs to 60 distillers in western Pennsylvania who had not paid the tax. Hamilton, President Washington, and the federalist government had been very upset with the western region’s lack of compliance with the law and the violence against tax collectors. The president had called out the militia to prepare for a march against the rebels, but he had also sent commissioners to negotiate with them. What was another name for the Whiskey Rebellion? Nonetheless, a shot was fired as the two men rode away. The previous central government under the Articles of Confederation had been unable to levy taxes; it had borrowed money to meet expenses and fund the Revolution, accumulating $54 million in debt. A portrait of Albert Gallatin . Six members of the mob were wounded before they fled with Miller’s body. Albert Gallatin, a leading Pennsylvania businessman, land developer, and State legislator long opposed internal Federal taxes. Albert Gallatin was an anti-federalist. Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin, born de Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Genevan-American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist.wikipedia. Gallatin … Susanna Rowson used the Whiskey Rebellion as inspiration for a musical farce for the stage called The Volunteers.The lyrics were set to music by Alexander Reinagle of the New Company, which performed the play in Philadelphia in 1795.. and started to rebel against it. Farmers took further issue because only cash would be accepted for tax payment. Local courts could now handle cases. Jean Bonnet Tavern. Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin, born de Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was an American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist. The fact that he was included on the list of rebels caused Albert Gallatin in later reflections to call his participation in the Whiskey Rebellion his "only political sin." On the morning of July 16, Neville was asleep in his home, Bower Hill, when he was awakened by a crowd of angry men—some of whom had been served summons the previous day. Friendship Hill was the home of Albert Gallatin, who represented Fayette County to the state assembly created in Pennsylvania during the Whiskey Rebellion. The Rebellion / The Essential Whiskey Rebellion Tour: 1-Day Passport The Essential Whiskey Rebellion Tour: 1-Day Passport The first excise tax in history might sound stuffy, but really, it’s the beginning of a much longer story about protests, punches thrown and a rebellion that rose up around whiskey. Gallatin was one of the men who met with the commissioners. As a public official, he aligned with Anti-Federalistsand spent much of his time in the state and national capital of Philadelphia. What was the Whiskey Rebellion? The tax was very disagreeable to the western farmers, with whiskey being virtually their only marketable product. Although opposed to the federal tax, Gallatin joined many of his fellow Republicans - including members of the Democratic Societies outside Western … They were marched to Philadelphia to stand trial regardless. Source: “To George Washington from Alexander Hamilton, 5 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, He advocated a system of public education, but also displayed his lifelong interest in financial matters, supporting bills to abolish paper money, pay the public debt in specie, and establish a bank of Pennsylvania to help support business endeavors. This page is currently being worked on. Please check back later. The federal government passed a law that taxed distilled spirits, known as the whiskey tax, in the spring of 1791. In a “long, sensible and eloquent” speech he asked the men to accept submission. On July 14, Lenox accepted the services of tax collector and wealthy landowner John Neville as guide through Allegheny County. Washington personally led federal soldiers in suppressing the Whiskey Rebellion, which arose in opposition to the administration's taxation policies. But American colonists, who had no representation in Parliament, saw the Acts as an abuse of power. Albert Gallatin, in full Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin, (born Jan. 29, 1761, Geneva, Switz.—died Aug. 12, 1849, Astoria, N.Y., U.S.), fourth U.S. secretary of the Treasury (1801–14).He insisted upon a … The Whiskey Rebellion was a response to the excise tax proposed by Alexander Hamilton, who was Washington's Secretary of the Treasury in 1791. Five years after Yorktown, the promise of the American Revolution had been unfulfilled for thousands of farmers in western and central Massachusetts, many of whom had more, Whiskey—a liquor whose origins in medieval Scotland or Ireland remain murky—once was an uncommon, exotic liquor in the 13 colonies, where rum, gin and brandy were the strong drinks of choice. Pennsylvanians elected him to the U.S. Senate in 1793, but Gallatin was denied his seat, ostensibly because he had not been a U.S. citizen for nine years. Engraving, 19th century. MONONGAHELA, Pa. — A Pennsylvania historical sign in a Monongahela parking lot marks the location where U.S. statesman Albert Gallatin delivered an eloquent speech that brought … Small producers, however, were stuck with paying nine cents per gallon in taxes. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Using your favorite search engine, type whiskey rebellion as the search term and explore the many different websites. Albert Gallatin, daguerreotype, circa 1845. Pigeon Creek, modern photograph. Many of the poor frontiersmen didn’t even have enough cash to pay the tax. Gallatin's mastery of public finance made him the obvious choice as Jefferson's Secretary of the Treasury; as Jefferson put it, Gallatin was "the only man in the United States who understands, through all the labyrinths Hamilton involved it, the precise state of the Treasury. However, the rebellion’s instigators had already fled, and the militia’s prisoners weren’t involved in the rebellion. One of the petitions he had signed not only outlined their complaints and asked for a repeal of the tax, but also said tax collectors were “unworthy of friendship” and deserved to be treated with contempt. A 19th century wood engraving depicting an illicit still in western Pennsylvania during the rebellion. What were many American's opinions on the excise tax on whiskey? Whiskey Insurrection. Gallatin was attracted to this region and the potential it held. Albert Gallatin, was a Pennsylvania businessman, land developer, and State legislator and he originally opposed internal Federal taxes. The delegates voted. He also suggested an excise tax on whiskey to prevent further financial difficulty. He made a complaint and warrants were issued for their arrest. The dispute itself had important ramifications. Opposition to the whiskey tax and the rebellion itself built support for the Republicans, who overtook Washington’s Federalist Party for power in 1802. Gallatin always supported the former. President Washington ordered the army to march west. Why … Following years of aggression with tax collectors, the region finally exploded in a confrontation that resulted in President Washington sending in troops to quell what some feared could become a full-blown revolution. The first time, a mob of people forced their way in and assaulted Wells’ wife and children. Whiskey Rebellion, (1794), in American history, uprising that afforded the new U.S. government its first opportunity to establish federal authority by military means within state boundaries, as officials moved into western Pennsylvania to quell an uprising of settlers rebelling against the liquor tax. After a lull, in 1794 the regional tax collector, John Neville, began working hard to collect the tax. That fall a tax collector was tarred and feathered, and more were to follow. But protests against the new tax began immediately, arguing that the tax was unfair to small producers. Learn More. Excise officers sent to collect the tax were met with defiance and threats of violence. Under the leadership of President Thomas Jefferson and the Republican Party (which, like many citizens, opposed Hamilton’s Federalist tax policies), the tax was repealed after continuing to be almost impossible to collect. Gallatin had strongly opposed the 1791 establishment of an excise tax on whiskey, as whiskey trade and production constituted an important part of the Western economy. The Neville women were allowed to flee to safety, after which the mob opened fire on the house. © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. 5 Covers US Postal History Taxes Albert Gallatin Whiskey Insurrection 19 1843 Inscribed ALBERT GALLATIN 4th Treas. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury (1801-1814). These isolated families farmed their land and after the harvest converted their surplus grain into whiskey. Early in his political career Albert Gallatin became embroiled in the Whiskey Rebellion, where his courage, wisdom and moderation helped the region, and propelled him onto the national stage. A pattern developed, when officials tried to collect the tax, the rebels would retaliate with assaults and threats, and when no one attempted collection, things were quiet. Liberty pole raised here in … During the Whiskey Rebellion Gallatin didn’t waiver from his principles, even though he was threatened by both the federalists and the rebels. Whiskey Rebellion. Failures of the Presidents. Given the opposition, his Fayette county neighbors elected him to the rebel assembly during the Whiskey Rebellion. Harmon Husband Historical Marker. Albert Gallatin. Whiskey Rebellion. The American's hated it. Gallatin agreed to be the first to address the gathering. Hamilton and other federalists mistakenly thought that Gallatin was a ringleader, and that he had stirred up violence. One week before the new law went into effect, Hamilton had sixty-one farmers in western Pennsylvania charged with violating the law. In fact, Kirkpatrick had helped Neville escape the house and hide in a ravine. NPS Home As the Whiskey Rebellion went forward, two simultaneous local movements protested the tax; a peaceful one attempting to legally repeal the law, and a violent one attacking any supporters of the tax. Gallatin was elected to the rebel assembly during the Whiskey Rebellion. He said it was his only “political sin. There were few good roads connecting east and west. Gallatin had just arrived back at Friendship Hill, when he attended a meeting of local farmers. He was tied to a tree in the woods for five hours before being found. New York, … Washington assumed emergency power to assemble more than 12,000 men from the surrounding states and eastern Pennsylvania as a federal militia. But during and immediately after the Revolutionary War, that all changed. 1 Washington Parkway Sir, The disagreeable crisis at which matters have lately arrived in … Laws dictating when, where and how slaves could congregate were enacted to prevent more, The Watts Rebellion, also known as the Watts Riots, was a large series of riots that broke out August 11, 1965, in the predominantly Black neighborhood of Watts in Los Angeles.